Peak incidence ages 2-5, most common leukemia in children/teens but can occur in adults! (like our patient)
Signs & Symptoms
-60 % Hepatosplenomegaly
-50 % lymphadenopathy
-33 % musculoskeletal pain (bone pain)
-Symptoms of low hemoglobin/platelet (usually WBC<10k, platelets <1000)- eg: bruising, bleeding.
-Can also see unilateral testicular enlargement and mediastinal mass (mimicking NHL)
–Bone marrow biopsy showing >30 % lymphoblasts
-Chem 10, uric acid-HIGH risk of tumor lysis syndrome with ALL
-Flow cytometry- check if it is B cell (eg: CD10/CD19/CD20) or T cell (Cd2, 4,5,7,8), usually Tdt+, MPO- in ALL
-Philadelphia Chromosome (T:9:22)-If positive, associated with worse prognosis
–Induction-CALBG + tyrosine kinase inhibitor if + Philadelphia Chromosome
See image below that shows progenitors for lymphocytes which are from a common lymphoid progenitor while granulocytes, platelets, RBC, and mast cells originate from a common myeloid progenitor.
Image by Mikael Häggström, from original by A. Rad – Image:Hematopoiesis (human) diagram.png by A. Rad, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=7351905